Biological treatment method which reduces the BOD, COD and AOX content of effluent.
Absorbable organic halogens. Collective term for the quantity of chlorine bound in organic compounds. It is formed during bleaching of pulp with chlorinated chemicals, but is also formed naturally.
Bark steam boiler
A boiler that burns mainly bark and other biofuels to produce steam.
Renewable fuels originating from the plant kingdom, for example from wood, including black liquor and bark. Is part of the cycle of nature.
The name given to the consumed cooking liquid in production of sulphate pulp. Black liquor is burnt in the soda recovery boiler at which time the wood substances (primarily lignin) provide energy for steam and electricity production. One requirement for both the environment and economy is that the chemicals consumed in black liquid are reproduced in the sulphate mill to new cooking chemicals.
Chemical process used to produce a pure bright (white) and stable pulp. In Skärblacka environmentally adapted ECF-bleaching is used without chlorine gas.
BOD (Biochemical Oxygen Demand)
Biochemical oxygen demand is a measure of the amount of oxygen that is used by micro-organisms in 7 days’ decomposition of the emission.
COD (Chemical Oxygen Demand)
A measure of the amount of oxygen needed to complete oxidation of organic matter in water.
Substances which, when being cooled, have condensed from gas to liquid form, e.g. steam which has condensed to water.
Corrugated board is manufactured by gluing two flat layers of paper (liner) with a rippled layer (fluting) in the middle.
ECF-bleaching (Elementary Chlorine-free)
A method where pulp is bleached using chlorine dioxide instead of chlorine gas.
Discharge of substances to air, land and or water.
Environmental impact description
Investigation of the impact a special operation has on the environment.
Emissions from the mill and consumption of resources by the mill.
Using heat, the dry content of e.g. black liquor, is increased by removal of water and other volatile substances.
The rippled middle layer in corrugated board, produced from either new or recycled fibre.
Fuels based on organic carbon and hydrogen compounds deposited in sediments or rock deposits – mainly coal, oil and fossil gas.
Normally birch. Hardwood has shorter fibres than softwood. The most important ingredient in fluting as well as writing and printing paper.
The International Organisation for Standardisation ISO’s standard for an environmental management system.
Landfill site that is handled in a controlled fashion.
The water (primarily rainwater) which leaks out from, e.g. a tip.
Wood substance that makes up about 30% of the total wood content. Lignin is dissolved in the cooking process in pulp-making and is burnt together with dissolved carbohydrates as biofuel (black liquor) in the soda recovery boiler for energy production.
Important part of sulphate pulp mill’s chemical recovery system. Lime sludge (calcium carbonate) is burnt in this kiln to produce lime.
MG Paper (Mono Glazed Paper)
Paper which is dried on a highly polished Yankee cylinder thus producing paper which has a very smooth, glossy surface on one side.
Pulp which is sold to paper mills.
A document that describes which check should be performed in order to ensure that the emissions conditions and other legal requirements are met.
A chemical element naturally present in wood. Discharges of nitrogen to water can cause nutrient enrichment, leading to luxuriant plant growth and subsequent oxygen deficiency when the plants decompose – a process called eutrophication.
Nitrogen oxides (NOx)
A group of gases composed of nitrogen and oxygen which are formed during combustion. In damp air, nitrogen oxides are converted to nitric acid, which causes acid precipitation.
A chemical element naturally present in wood. Discharges to water can cause nutrient enrichment, leading to luxuriant plant growth and subsequent oxygen deficiency when the plants decompose – a process called eutrophication.
The part of the environment near a plant, e.g. air and water, which receives emissions.
Fibre material that has previously been used in a paper or board product.
Pulp where the fibres are separated through a combination of chemical and mechanical processing (defibration).
Soda recovery boiler
A steam boiler with a chemical reactor at the bottom. The organic matter in the black liquor (wood residues) is burnt at a very high temperature. Steam is generated while the organic material forms a melt at the bottom of the boiler from which cooking chemicals are recovered.
Wood from coniferous trees, pine and spruce. Has longer and stronger fibres than hardwood.
Chemical pulp produced by cooking wood under high pressure and at a high temperature in cooking liquor, known as white liquor (sodium hydroxide and sodium sulphide). Sulphate pulp is also known as kraft pulp.
Sulphur dioxide (SO2)
A gas consisting of sulphur and oxygen formed during combustion of sulphur-containing fuels such as black liquor and oil. In contact with damp air, sulphur dioxide is converted into sulphuric acid which causes acid precipitation.
Suspended solids (SS)
Substances suspended in water consisting of fibres and other particles than can be separated with a filter.
Paper with high strength properties and used for the production of sacks. Made from softwood sulphate pulp.
Device used to wash gases. A flow of liquid removes particles, and dissolved substances, e.g. SO2, from gases.
The Licensing Board for Environment Protection
A licensing authority, giving environmental permits to big factories, for example pulp and paper mills. From 1999 the Licensing Board has been replaced by Environmental Courts.
The name given to the cooking liquid which is used in production of sulphate pulp. It contains sodium hydroxide and sodium sulphide.
The section of a pulp and paper mill where the incoming logs are debarked and chipped prior to cooking.